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林姝宏:梦想在首都放飞 情怀在家乡延续(图)

2019-05-25 03:49 来源:中国经济网陕西

  林姝宏:梦想在首都放飞 情怀在家乡延续(图)

  SitiHediatiHaryadi,popularlyknownasTitiekSoeharto,willreportedlyserveasthecoordinatorofelectoratedistrictcommandsfortheBerkaryaParty,oneofthestrategicposi,MbakTitiekSoehartohasjoinedtheBerkaryaPartywhereshewillholdaseniorandstrategicpositioninthepartysstructure,BerkaryrossIndonesia,Titiekwouldalsorunasthepart,whichisledbyherbrother,HutomoMandalaPutra,orTommySoeharto,inBantul,Yogyakarta,,Soeharto,whose32-yearNewOrderregimeendedin1998followingmassi,Indonesianow,,whichiscurrentlyinPresidentJokoJokowiWidodoscoalition.(gis/ebf)TheproblematicplantoadaptthefamousnovelBumiManusia(EarthofMankind)intoafilmand,buttheabilitytodigestthewriters/indeedthetragiclovestorybetweenthemaincharacters,,:thatAnneliesseparationfromMinkedepictsthepowerlessnessofthecolonizedpeopleastheoppressedinthefaceofthelaw,imposedonthembytheoppressor;thatMinkesshiftfromaspoiledwriterwhoinitiallyonlywantedhiswritingtobeappreciatedbytheupper-classoppressors,toanationalistwriterwhowantedhisworkstoinspirehisfellowbrothersandsistersisacallfornationalismandsocialmovement;howNyaiOntosorohsout-of-her-time,courageousindependencefromherrottenhusbandisacallforfreedom,,themoreonereadsthebookhopefullyfollowedbyothersinthetrilogythemoreonewillfindideastodiscuss,,BumiManusiaisareputableliterarywork,notonlynationallybutglobally,l,especi,,,asIwillnotj,IdefinitelyexpectthatHanunghasafullgr,NoviaRianiPutridismissedpeonalmaterialnortheauthor,andsaidBumiManusiacouldbepopularamo,shesaidnobodywouldactuallybothertoreadaclassicandthicknovelofothercountrieswithold-languagestyleaseventhenativespeakers[ofthoseworks]mostlyreadthemaspartofahighschooltask,,AhmadToharisRonggengDukuhParuk(DancerofParukVillage)wouldonlymeanastoryofaneroticdancer,UmarKayamsParaPriyayi(TheNobility)wouldbenothingmorethanafamilydramaandAchdiatKartaMihardjasAtheiswouldbemerelyanothertragiclovestory.(mut)***ThewriterisanIndonesianlectureratGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies,Guangzhou,ent,TeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversity,NewYork,theUnitedStates.

[Photo/VCG]ChinaneedstobepreparedwithflexibleplanstorespondtotheinconsistenttradeandeconomicpoliciesoftheadministrationofUSPresidentDonaldTrump,asbothsidesstillfaceahostofunresolvedissuesrelatedtobilateraltrade,evelofficialtalksthatconcludedinBeijingonSunday,theUSgovernmentmaystillreleasealistonJune15imposinga25percenttariffon$50billionworthofChinesegoodscontaining"industrialsignificanttechnology",sMinistryofCommercestressedonThursdaythatthenationiswillingtoexpandimportsfromtheUSiftheycanmeet"halfway",sstanceisconsist,includingtariffhikes,theeconomicandtradeachievementsnegotiatedbythet,aneconomistatTsinghuaUniversityandformercentralbankmonetarypolicycommitteemember,saidChinaisabletoadjustandupgradeitseconomicstructurefromalong-termperspective."Againstthatbackdrop,,",Lisaid,suchasindustrixtfewmonths,saidLi."Thenegotiationswillbealongandbumpyroad,"hesaid."Weshouldmaintainabalancedframeofmind,ratherthanbeirritatedbytheWhiteHousesstatementsortheUSpresidentsmessagesonTwitter.""IfChinacannotachievesubstantialresultsthroughdialogue,itmuststudytheUSmovesandpreparemeasurestocountertheUSaction,"saidLongGuoqiang,,formerchiefeconomistandseniorvice-presidentoftheWorldBankfrom2008to2012,saidtheUSshouldbeawarethatexportingmoreenergyandagriculturalproductstoChinawillnotfundamentallychangethesituationofthetradedeficitwithChina,andwhatChina,Linsaid,thetwosidesshouldexpandtradenegotiationtopicsfromenergyandagric,Hungarysministerofforeignaffairsandtrade,calledonbothsidestorationallyresolvetradedisputes."Ofcourseweunderstandtherecentdevelopmentoftheglobaltradingsystem,weseethatrestrictivemeasuresandcustomsbarriershavebeensetup,"SzijjartosaidonthesidelinesoftheThirdMinisterialConferenceofChinaandCentralandEasternEuropeanCountriesonPromotingTradeandEconomicCooperationheldinNingboonThursday."ChinaisHungarynationaltradeorder,insteadofadestructivetradewar,"toarecordhigh,frobusteconomicgrowthinthesecondquarter.JapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe(left)attendsanewsconferencewithUSPresidentDonaldTrumponWednesdayinPalmBeach,Florida,US.[Photo/Agencies]AttheirmeetinginMar-a-Lago,Florida,onApril18,USPresidentDonaldTrumprebuffedJapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe,TrumpannouncedthattheUSwonewtariffs,whichwillamounttoabout50billionyen($450million)ayearforJapandespiteAbeworkinghardtocultivateacloserelationshipwithTrump-ountermeasuresagainstUStariffs,sprotectionistpolicies,Japanhassignedorisnegotiatingmultilateraltradeagreements,which,itbelieves,,theJapaneseparliamentisworkingtowardratifyingtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership,,JapanseestheTPP-11asacornerstoneonwhichitcn,too,inDecember,andthetwosidesaremaki,t,16countriesreachedaconsensustocompleteabasicframe,itwillproducethemostpopulous,diverseandenergeticfreetradeareaintheworld,,theleadersofChina,JapanandtheROKadvocatedeconomicglobalizationandfreetrade,andagr,,duringPremierLiKeqiangsvisittoJapan,BeijingandTokyoagreedtoestablishapublic-privatecounciltodiscussjoi,Japandoesnotwanttonegotiateatwo-waytrexploringcouldbackfireworldwide,sprotectionistpolicieswil,theUShasaskedJapan,aswellasitsotherallies,sdefensebudgethasalreadybeenrisingeveryyearundertheAbeadministrationendingadecadeofmilitarybudgetcuts,

  PresidentXiJinpingpresidesoveraplenarysessionofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,"self-centered,shortsightedandcloseddoorpolicies".LIXUEREN/XINHUAChinatoestablish$,offerstotrain2,000lawenforcementofficersforallSCOcountriesPresidentXiJinpingcalledonSundayforjointeffortswithShanghaiCooperationOrganizationcountriestobuildanopenworldeconomyandreject"self-centered,shortsightedandclosed-doorpolicies".XimadetheremarkinaspeechhedeliveredattheplenarysessionoftheSCOSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince."WeshouldupholdWTOrulesandsupportthemultilateraltradingsystemsoastobuildanopenworldeconomy,",tradeprotectionismandthebacklashagainstglobalizationaretakingonnewforms,,Xiannouncedanumberofmajormeasu($)equivalentspeciallendingfacilitywithintheframeworkoftheInterbankConsortiumoftheSCO,,000lawenforcementofficersforallSCOcoun,Chinawillprovide3,000trainingopportunitiesforthehumanresourcesdevelopmentofSCOmemberstates,engyun2weathersatellites,ibutiontopeaceanddevelopmentintheregion,ancesystem,andwork,thegrowingcallforamorejustandequitableinternationalordermustbeheeded,Xisaid,addingthatgreaterdemocracyininternationalrelationshasbecomeanunstoppabletrendofthetimes."TheShanghaiSpirit,transcendingoutdatedconceptssuchasclashofcivilizationsColdWarandzero-summentality,hasopenedanewchapterinthehistoryofinternationalrelations,andgainedincreasingendorsementoftheinternationalcommunity,",SCOcountrieshaveforgedaconstructivepartnershipfeaturingnon-alliance,non-confrontationandnottargetinganythirdparty,nd40percentofitspopulation.MamnoonHussain,PakistanipresidentChinawillcontinuetofirmlysupportPakistantosafeguardnationalindependence,sovereigntyandterritorialintegrity,Preside,andChinawillcontinuetoworkwithPakistanastheysupporteachotheronissuesrelatedtotheircoreinterests,thussafeguardingtheinterestsofbothcountriesaswellasthecommoninterestsofdevelopingnations,,whoisattendingthesummitasaformalmemberoftheSCOforthefirsttimtyears,andtheall-weatherstrategiccooperativepartnershipisnotonlythewealthofbothcountries,butalsoaleadingmodelforanewtypeofinternationalrelations,Pakistan,XisaidChinawouldliketoenhancehigh-levelexchangesandstrategiccommunicationwithPakistan,boostfriendlyexchangesinallareas,steadilypushforwardbuildingtheChina-PakistanEconomicCorridor,andenhancecoinaonallcoreissues,includingtheSouthChinaSeaissue,Hussainsaid."Chinaisourclosestfriendandstrongestpartner,",deepencooperationinallareassuchaseconomy,tradeandsecurity,andpushthebuildingoftheChina-PakistanEconomicCorridor,,whichisofgreatsignificanceformaintainingglobalsecurityandstability,headded.

  ChinesePresidentXiJinpingmeetswithGermanChancellorAngelaMerkel,inBeijing,capitalofChina,May24,2018.[Photo/Xinhua]Lastweek,GermanChancellorAngelaMerkelconcludedher11thvisittoChinasince2005,,thel,fromJanuarytoMay,EuropeanleaderssuchasFrenchPresidentEmmanuelMacron,BritishPrimeMinisterTheresaMay,DutchPrimeMinisterMarkRutteandAustrianPresidentAlexanderVanderBellenvisitedChina,,mainlybecauseoftheunstablepoliciesoftheUS,thedialoguebetweenEuropeanUnionmemberstatesandChina,statements,mediareportsandcommuniquésshowtheirmeetingshavebeen,byandlarge,,alltheEuropeanleadershavesupportedtheChina-proposedBeltandRoadInitiativeandagreedtoworkwithChinatopromoteglobalization,,MerkelsaidshesupportsChinascooperationeffortsinEurope,sodotheleadersofthe16CentralandEasternEuropeancountries,ina,whichces,especiallyoncooperationonforeignpolicies,nges,,someEUofficialsareinfluencedbyideologyand/orlobbyinggroups,,heurgedthatChinaandGer,theideologicaldifferencesarepreventingsomeEUcountriesfromcapitalizingontheopportunitiescreatedbyChinaDonaldTusk,theyneedtomakemoreeffortstoliftBeijing-Brusselsrelationstoanewlevel,especiallybecausetheyarelosingconfidenceinWashington,,whowastheprimeministerofLuxemburgfrom1995to2013andministeroffinancesfrom1989to2009beforeheadingtheEC,srelationsforeigninvestmentinthefinancial,serviceandhigh-endmanu,therefore,theEUleadersshouldmakeeffortstoestab,BeijingandBrusselscanatleastexchan,TuskandJuncker,whentheyvisitChinalaterthisyeartoholdtheirannualmeetingswithChineseleaders,mustshowtheyareeagertodothesame,sothatBeijingandBrusselscanfulfilltheirdueglobalresponsibilitiesofpromotingfreetradeanddeeThetopscorerin2015nationalcollegeentranceexaminChongqing.[Photo/IC]Thecountrystopeducationauthorityhasissuedanoticeonbanningpublicityoftopscorersingaokao,ornationalcollegeentranceexamination,bsite,sthefirsttimethattheministryhastakwhodosowillbedealtwithseriously,ChenBaosheng,ministerofeducation,saidatarecenttop-le,,,reinforcedtheideaofexam-orientededucationandworsenedthesocialenvironmentforeducationreformanddevelopment,saidWangKai,reefromtheshacklesofmoneyandfameandreturnittoitsoriginalgoalofnurturingstudents.

FireworksandalightshowcolortheQingdaoskylineduringaperformancetowelcomeleadersattendingthe18thSh/CHINADAILYAstunningspectacleontheseainQingdaowelcomedoverseasleadersanddelegatesintow,whichlastedabout20minutes,wasamixtureofclassicalandmodernChinesestylesandfeaturedagiantglobeasitscenterpiece,symbolizingthenation,anancientChinesepieceofmusic,openedproceedingsbeforevariousroutinesinvolvingabout100performersandalightshowincorporatingtheskyscrapersalongtheeasterncitysFushanBay."Itsthefirsttimethestageforsuchagalahasinteractedwithacitysskylineandthesea,"saidZhangYimou,theshowsdirector."Wewantedtousetheoceantorepresentinclusiveness."Atonepoint,an"astronaut"emergedfromtheglobe,anelementZhangsaidrepresentedhowtheG20SummitinHangzhou,Zhejiangprovince,,ashowtheydevisedwasperformedattheclosingceremonyatthePyeongchangWinterOlympicsinSouthKorea,withthenextGamestobeco-hostedbyBeijing."Coastalcitiescreateadreamlikefeeling,"YisaidshortlybeforeSaturdaysgala."Ifwedowell,QingdaowillleaveagreatimpressionintheheartsofpeoplewatchingathomeonTV."Despitetheirrichexperience,YisaidthereweremanydifficultiesinpreparingfortheQingdaogala,,butat,hesaid,addingthatheavyfoghadshroudedFushanBayandonlyclearedonSaturday."Wehadtoprepareforthetoughestofsituations,",realisticmakeupandcostumesoverabstractdesignsas"natural,confidentsmilesarethebestwaytotouchanaudience".QingdaoisinShandongprovince,thebirthplaceofancientphilosopherConfuciusandhometoTaishanMountain,,,mixingtraditionalculturewithahigh-techapproachwasanimportantpartofSaturdaysgala,reflectingChinasrisingeconomicandtechnicalpower."Chinanotonlyhasalonghistorybutmanymodernelements,,wewantedtoshowtheChinesepeoplesspiritthroughtheshow,"hesaid,addingthathefeelsthiscombinationwillbeatrendoflarge-scaleshowsinChina.

  BrocadepaintingTheDrunkenBeautydisplayedattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.[]ExhibitionReconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofChineseSilkopenCultureDepartment,andorganizedbytheChinaNationalSilkMuseum,theexhibitionisanotherhighlightoftheChineseCultureandTourismMinistrysinternationalprogramofChinaWeek:InheritanceandInnovat,thenewexhibitionpresentsthetechniquesandcharmoftheancientChinesesilkthroughfoursubthemes:Broderie,Impression,Tissage,andTeinture,thatis,embroidery,printing,weavinganddyeing.

  ArtistsfromKyrgyzstanstageaperformanceatadanceshowheldduringanSCOmembersartfestivalinBeijingonJune1.[Photo/Xinhua]Womensgreaterinvolvementininnovationandentrepreneurshipcanhelpboostsustainabledevelopmentandreducedirepoverty,accordingtotheoutcomedocumentofthefirstShanghaiCooperationOrganizationForumonWomen,,tobepresentedtotheSCOSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,saidtheforumparticipantsbelievedwomenshouldhavebetteraccesstoqualityeducationandproductiveresources,,heldonMay17,hadthethemeof"poolingthestrengthofwomenforcommondevelopment"andattractedmorethan200participants,"povertyreduction,jobcreation,inclusiveeconomicgrowthandsustainabledevelopment".Italsonotedwomensimportanceinenvironmentalconservation,andcalledforSCOcountriestoraisewomensvoicesineco-governanceandsexchangesandcooperationwithintheSCOframework,diversifymeansofcooperationandenhancewomensabilitytoparticipateinlocalandglobalsocioeconomicdevelopment,,vice-presidentoftheAll-ChinaWomensFederation,saidwomenareagreatforcewhosegenderdividendisfarfrombeingfullyrealized."Weneedtodoourbesttocleartheobstaclesthatsuppresswomenspotential,"shesaid."Weneedtosupporttheirinnovationanddevelopment,andliberatetheirproductivitysoastohelpthemmaketheircontributionsineveryfieldandfacilitatedevelopmentintheircountries."Womenaccountfor43percentofChinasworkforce,thefederationsaid,while55pe53percentofpostgraduatestudents,,($)inventurecapitalloanshavebeengrantedtowomensince2009.AgroupofRussiandoctorsstudycuppingpracticeatatraditionalChinesemedicinehospitalinGansuprovince.[Photo/Xinhua]AnallianceofhospitalshasbeensetuptoenhanceacademicandtechnologicalexchangesamongShanghaiCooperationOrganiza,aplatformfordiscussiononmedicalstandardizationmanagementandclinicaltrials,alliancealongwithsevenfromKyrgyzstan,Kazakhstan,PakistanandMongolia,accordingtoZhaoHongtao,deputysecretary-generaloftheChinaHospitalAssociation,,inwhichSCOcountriescanbenefitfromtelemedicineandtransfertreatment."TheallianceintendstoencouragethepracticeoftelemedicineinSCOcountries,wherethereishighdemandamongmedicalworkers,"ferclinicalcareatadistance,suchasthroughavideolink,he,atelemedicineplatformwassetupintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregiont,theycansharemedicalresourcesandconsultexpertsinmajorcitiesincludingBeijing,sachievementsandencouragemorehospitalstotakepart."WealsoexpectmorequalifiedhospitalsinChinasdevelopedareaswilljointheplatformsothatmorepatientsfromremoteareaswithinSCOcountriescansharehigh-classmedicalresources,",especiallythosewithcomplicatedandseverediseases,,directoroftheassociation,toldChinaNewsServicethatthealliancewillnotonlyenha,deputyhealthministerofKyrgyzstan,saidhiscountryalreadyenjoyslotsofcooperationwithChina,includingexchangesofmedicalexpertsandstudents.

  USPresidentDonaldTrumpwalkswiththeDPRKstopleaderKimJong-unattheCapellahotelonSentosaislandinSingaporeonTuesday.[Photo/Agencies]ThenewTrump-Kimjointagreementcouldproveapromising“memorandumofunderstanding.”However,it’snotjustaboutdenuclearization;:Followinghoursofclosed-doortalksinCapellahotelinSingapore,USPresidentDonaldTrumpandDPRKleaderKimJong-unsignedajointfour-pointagreement:toestablishnewUS-DPRKrelations,astablepeaceregime,aDPRKcommitmenttoachievethe“completedenuclearization”oftheKoreanPeninsula,,theagreementdoesnotincludeafirm“verifiable”and“irreversible”,theTrump-Kimagreementisnotafinaldeal,,itshouldbeseenasapromising“memorandumofunderstanding.”,,ag,arealpeaceandstabilityrequiresfarmorethanafour-pointagreemen,DPRKiscus,Pyongyanghaslong–andjustifiably––afterWashingtonhadlostitsnuclearmonopolytotheSovietUnion-theearlysetbacksintheKoreanWarpromptedGeneralMacArthurtoconsiderusingnuclearweaponsagainsttheChineseandNorthKoreans–touseradioactivefalloutzonestodisruptChinesesupplychains-until,,between1950and1953,theUSsubjectedDPRKtoadevastatingbombingcampaign,whichdestroyed85percentofthecountry’sbuildingsandcausedonemillioncivilianstodie;morethantheentireciviliandeathsinWorldWarIIbombingofGermanyandJapan,,WashingtonhasseenDPRKasa“roguestate.”EvenwiththeSovietUnion,Washingtonsupported“peacefulcoexistence,”butwithDPRK,onlya“temporaryceasefire.”That’,Trump’sstatementinthepressconferencethattheUShadagreedtostopplaying“wargames”withPyongyang,referringtothejointmilitaryexerciseswithSouthKorea,“bringoursoldiersbackhome”fromDPRK,headmitteditwas“notpartoftheequationrightnow.”Typically,thedecisiontoceasethej’,hehadnearlyagreedtotheG7Summitcommuniqué,,dealsareseldomfixedentities,,formerUSpresidentJimmyCarterwhohasnegotiatedwithseveralDPRKleaders,notedthat,foralongtime,Pyongyanghassoughta“peacetreatytoreplacethe[1953]ceasefire.”Inhisexperience,inedIrannucleardeal,thatised2013NewYear’saddress,KimJong-unadvocated"aradicalturninthebuildingofaneconomicgiantonthestrengthofscienceandtechnologybyfanningtheflamesoftheindustrialrevolutioninthenewcentury.”Theseeconomiceffortsshould“bemanifestedinthepeople’sstandardofliving.”,PresidentObamaoptedforaPentagon-led“pivottoAsia”’soutlineforaPentagon-led“pivottoAsia,”,theobjectivewastoseizetheopportunitytocooperatewiththethen-presidentofSouthKorea,ParkGeun-hye,,insteadofrapprochement,WashingtonpushedforaTerminalHighAltitudeAreaDefense(THAAD),THAADwouldkilltwobirdswithonestone:itwouldsubduePyongyangand,ifneeded,,however,fellapartinearly2017,,,Park’sconservativeswereabletopostponetherepealoftheOperationControlagreement(OPCON),/USCombinedForcesCommand(CFC)isto“deterhostileactsofexternalaggression”SouthKoreabya“combinedmilitaryeffort.”TheCFCiscommandedbyaUSGeneralandithasoperationalcontrol(OPCON)overmorethan600,,USintere,atrueandlastingpeaceintheKorrtthetalks,thenullificationofimpeachmenteffortsagainsttheWhiteHouse,minimallossesfortheincumbentsintheUSmid-termelections,anotherTrumpelectiontriumphin2020–and’savery,,TrumpandKimtookthefirst,,ChinaandAmericaInstitute(US),theShanghaiInstitutesforInternationalStudies(China)andtheEUCenter(Singapore).

  JapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe(left)attendsanewsconferencewithUSPresidentDonaldTrumponWednesdayinPalmBeach,Florida,US.[Photo/Agencies]AttheirmeetinginMar-a-Lago,Florida,onApril18,USPresidentDonaldTrumprebuffedJapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe,TrumpannouncedthattheUSwonewtariffs,whichwillamounttoabout50billionyen($450million)ayearforJapandespiteAbeworkinghardtocultivateacloserelationshipwithTrump-ountermeasuresagainstUStariffs,sprotectionistpolicies,Japanhassignedorisnegotiatingmultilateraltradeagreements,which,itbelieves,,theJapaneseparliamentisworkingtowardratifyingtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership,,JapanseestheTPP-11asacornerstoneonwhichitcn,too,inDecember,andthetwosidesaremaki,t,16countriesreachedaconsensustocompleteabasicframe,itwillproducethemostpopulous,diverseandenergeticfreetradeareaintheworld,,theleadersofChina,JapanandtheROKadvocatedeconomicglobalizationandfreetrade,andagr,,duringPremierLiKeqiangsvisittoJapan,BeijingandTokyoagreedtoestablishapublic-privatecounciltodiscussjoi,Japandoesnotwanttonegotiateatwo-waytrexploringcouldbackfireworldwide,sprotectionistpolicieswil,theUShasaskedJapan,aswellasitsotherallies,sdefensebudgethasalreadybeenrisingeveryyearundertheAbeadministrationendingadecadeofmilitarybudgetcuts,Jakarta,posted:Mon,June11,201803:03amThestudy,whichspanned1999to2016,foundthatmorethanhalfofpeoplewhokilledthemselve,substancemisuse;physicalhealthproblems;andjob,money,legalorhousingstress,,,,Washington,,,,thetopUSpublichealthagency,saidindividualstatesneedtodomoretoboostsu:government,publichealth,healthcare,employers,education,mediaandcommunityorganizations,itadded,urgingthoseinterestedinlearningthewarningsignstovisit.

  AstevedoreworksatQingdaoportinShandongprovince,July1,2015.[Photo/IC]ThecityofQingdao,Shandongprovince,whichhostedthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitovertheweekend,,Qingdaoboasts65majorshippingroutesconnectingkeyregionsof,thecityhassignedseveralportcooperationagreementswithothercities,,Russia,andGwadar,Pakistan,go."From2010totheendofMay,weveseenmorethan3,000freighttraintrips,"saidXingFangmin,astaffmemberattheJiaozhouBayInternationalLogisticsHarborinQingdao."Withatraveldistanceofabout4,500kilometers,goodscanreachKazakhstan,Uzbekistan,Kyrgyzstan,"QingdaoislookingtopositionitselfasastrategichubinthenetworkofglobaltraderoutesChinaisbuildingaspartoftheBeltandRoadInitiative,saidWeiHuaxiang,deputysecretary-generalofShandong,($),sentireforeigntradevolumeandleavingsignificantroomforgrowth,,Qingdao,,,Qingdaoenterpriseshadsignedagreementsfor284investmentprojectswithSCOcompanies,accordingtoPeoplesDaily,just-concluded18thSCOSummittofurtheropenupitseconomybyestablishingprovincial-levelcross-bordereconomicandtradeparksatafasterrate,,,thecompanyinvested$50milliont,theplanthadproducedmorethan100,000"MadeinRussia"refrigerators,thecompanysaid."OursalesinRussiajumpedby55percentyear-on-yeartoreach$220millionin2017,"saidWangTing,operationsmanagerofHaiersRussianbranch."High-endmultidoorrefrigeratorsclaimed48percentoftheRussianmarketshare,makingusessentiallythemarketleaderinthesegment."WeisaidQingdaoisoncoursetobuildademonstrationzonetopromotetradebetweenChinaandSCOmembercoun

  AstevedoreworksatQingdaoportinShandongprovince,July1,2015.[Photo/IC]ThecityofQingdao,Shandongprovince,whichhostedthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitovertheweekend,,Qingdaoboasts65majorshippingroutesconnectingkeyregionsof,thecityhassignedseveralportcooperationagreementswithothercities,,Russia,andGwadar,Pakistan,go."From2010totheendofMay,weveseenmorethan3,000freighttraintrips,"saidXingFangmin,astaffmemberattheJiaozhouBayInternationalLogisticsHarborinQingdao."Withatraveldistanceofabout4,500kilometers,goodscanreachKazakhstan,Uzbekistan,Kyrgyzstan,"QingdaoislookingtopositionitselfasastrategichubinthenetworkofglobaltraderoutesChinaisbuildingaspartoftheBeltandRoadInitiative,saidWeiHuaxiang,deputysecretary-generalofShandong,($),sentireforeigntradevolumeandleavingsignificantroomforgrowth,,Qingdao,,,Qingdaoenterpriseshadsignedagreementsfor284investmentprojectswithSCOcompanies,accordingtoPeoplesDaily,just-concluded18thSCOSummittofurtheropenupitseconomybyestablishingprovincial-levelcross-bordereconomicandtradeparksatafasterrate,,,thecompanyinvested$50milliont,theplanthadproducedmorethan100,000"MadeinRussia"refrigerators,thecompanysaid."OursalesinRussiajumpedby55percentyear-on-yeartoreach$220millionin2017,"saidWangTing,operationsmanagerofHaiersRussianbranch."High-endmultidoorrefrigeratorsclaimed48percentoftheRussianmarketshare,makingusessentiallythemarketleaderinthesegment."WeisaidQingdaoisoncoursetobuildademonstrationzonetopromotetradebetweenChinaandSCOmembercoun

  JapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe(left)attendsanewsconferencewithUSPresidentDonaldTrumponWednesdayinPalmBeach,Florida,US.[Photo/Agencies]AttheirmeetinginMar-a-Lago,Florida,onApril18,USPresidentDonaldTrumprebuffedJapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe,TrumpannouncedthattheUSwonewtariffs,whichwillamounttoabout50billionyen($450million)ayearforJapandespiteAbeworkinghardtocultivateacloserelationshipwithTrump-ountermeasuresagainstUStariffs,sprotectionistpolicies,Japanhassignedorisnegotiatingmultilateraltradeagreements,which,itbelieves,,theJapaneseparliamentisworkingtowardratifyingtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership,,JapanseestheTPP-11asacornerstoneonwhichitcn,too,inDecember,andthetwosidesaremaki,t,16countriesreachedaconsensustocompleteabasicframe,itwillproducethemostpopulous,diverseandenergeticfreetradeareaintheworld,,theleadersofChina,JapanandtheROKadvocatedeconomicglobalizationandfreetrade,andagr,,duringPremierLiKeqiangsvisittoJapan,BeijingandTokyoagreedtoestablishapublic-privatecounciltodiscussjoi,Japandoesnotwanttonegotiateatwo-waytrexploringcouldbackfireworldwide,sprotectionistpolicieswil,theUShasaskedJapan,aswellasitsotherallies,sdefensebudgethasalreadybeenrisingeveryyearundertheAbeadministrationendingadecadeofmilitarybudgetcuts,ChinesePresidentXiJinpingmeetswithGermanChancellorAngelaMerkel,inBeijing,capitalofChina,May24,2018.[Photo/Xinhua]Lastweek,GermanChancellorAngelaMerkelconcludedher11thvisittoChinasince2005,,thel,fromJanuarytoMay,EuropeanleaderssuchasFrenchPresidentEmmanuelMacron,BritishPrimeMinisterTheresaMay,DutchPrimeMinisterMarkRutteandAustrianPresidentAlexanderVanderBellenvisitedChina,,mainlybecauseoftheunstablepoliciesoftheUS,thedialoguebetweenEuropeanUnionmemberstatesandChina,statements,mediareportsandcommuniquésshowtheirmeetingshavebeen,byandlarge,,alltheEuropeanleadershavesupportedtheChina-proposedBeltandRoadInitiativeandagreedtoworkwithChinatopromoteglobalization,,MerkelsaidshesupportsChinascooperationeffortsinEurope,sodotheleadersofthe16CentralandEasternEuropeancountries,ina,whichces,especiallyoncooperationonforeignpolicies,nges,,someEUofficialsareinfluencedbyideologyand/orlobbyinggroups,,heurgedthatChinaandGer,theideologicaldifferencesarepreventingsomeEUcountriesfromcapitalizingontheopportunitiescreatedbyChinaDonaldTusk,theyneedtomakemoreeffortstoliftBeijing-Brusselsrelationstoanewlevel,especiallybecausetheyarelosingconfidenceinWashington,,whowastheprimeministerofLuxemburgfrom1995to2013andministeroffinancesfrom1989to2009beforeheadingtheEC,srelationsforeigninvestmentinthefinancial,serviceandhigh-endmanu,therefore,theEUleadersshouldmakeeffortstoestab,BeijingandBrusselscanatleastexchan,TuskandJuncker,whentheyvisitChinalaterthisyeartoholdtheirannualmeetingswithChineseleaders,mustshowtheyareeagertodothesame,sothatBeijingandBrusselscanfulfilltheirdueglobalresponsibilitiesofpromotingfreetradeanddee

  

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首 页 >> 时政 >> 科技 >> “塑料子宫”延续早产儿生命 >> 阅读

“塑料子宫”延续早产儿生命

2019-05-25 08:38 作者:徐芃 来源:中国青年报 编辑:郑雪婧
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Studentsboarda"gaokaotrain"atDayangshutownshipinNorthChinasInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegion,June5,2017.[Photo/VCG],,thenationalcollegeentranceexamination,,,boardedthetrainonTuesdaywithherclassmates."Thetripmaybethelasttimewearealltogether,"saidLu,"gaokaotrain"departonitstwo-and-half-hourjourneymanytimesasgenerationsofherschoolmatesleftfortheexamination,sInnerMongoliaAutonom,studen,the"gaokaotrain"departsonJune5,($2).Beforethecharteredtrainservicebeganin2003,,"gaokaotrain"asshewasworriedthatthebumpyjourneywouldinevitablyaffectherperformance.","saidMeng,,thetrainhascarriedmorethan30,,,,includingstudentsandparents,hasdeclinedfrom1,300atitspeakto500thisyear,saidChenRuqing,,thericketyoldgreentrainhasbeenreplacedwithaneweronewithairconditioning,andphotographeronboardwillpreservethememoriesofwhatisaveryspecialdayinthelivesofthoseaboard."Althoughwelosemoneybyoperatingthetrain,wewillkeeprunningaslongasitisneeded,"Chensaid.

 

“生物袋”工作示意图

可这不是普通的塑料袋,这套装置在尽可能模仿子宫的结构,凝聚了人类新生儿研究最前沿的成果。里面那只小羊羔是从母羊子宫内取出的胎羊,这些小羊羔一共有8只,都在羊妈妈体内长到100~115天,从肺部发育的角度对比,相当于22~24周的人类胎儿。

美国费城儿童医院的研究团队将这个装置称为“生物袋”。艾米丽·帕特里奇医生说:“我们这个装置,就是在体外再造一个子宫。”

未来,这个“人造子宫”将用来庇护那些过早来到世间的新生命。

按照世界卫生组织的定义,出生时间小于28周的新生儿被称为“极端早产儿”。

在美国,极端早产是新生儿死亡的首要原因。每3个早早辞世的新生儿里,就有1个是极端早产儿。这些着急的小生命,还没在妈妈的子宫里待满26周,就匆匆降生,然后匆匆告别。即使侥幸存活,他们也很容易出现慢性肺疾病、脑性瘫痪、视觉或听觉障碍等后遗症,影响终生。

在母体子宫和外部世界之间,“生物袋”有望成为极端早产儿的堡垒,为这些脆弱的新生命提供庇护。目前,这项装置已经在胎羊身上取得成功。经过4周的养育,8只小羊羔在“生物袋”里睁开了眼睛,粉红的表皮上也长出浅浅一层白色绒毛,神经系统与身体器官逐渐成熟,时不时还扭扭身子。

“这些新生儿迫切需要一个临时的庇护所”

“我想,大多数医生都不会忘记第一次走进新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)的场景。”帕特里奇医生回忆,“那么轻的一个小孩子……只要看到他,你立马就能意识到,他这时候还不应该来到这个世界,他还没有准备好。”

一个24周左右的早产儿是什么样子?费城儿童医院的另一位研究者解释道,找一瓶500毫升的矿泉水,拿到手里掂量掂量,一个极端早产儿就这么重。

成年人手掌大小、全身发紫、无法自主呼吸与进食……这些都是极端早产儿的典型特征。这些孩子本该继续待在母亲的子宫,通过血液从胎盘处获得氧气和营养,代谢废物。子宫内的羊水对胎儿起到保护作用,使其能够在稳定的压力和温度下成长。

“在母体子宫与外部世界之间,这些新生儿迫切需要一个临时的庇护所。”研究团队的带头人、费城儿童医院外科医生弗雷克说,“如果我们可以为他们找到一个模拟子宫的环境,只需要几周的时间,就能大幅改善极端早产儿的处境。”

从数据上看,在医疗设施完备的情况下,23周是早产儿生死的分割线。

在23周以前出生的胎儿,存活率几乎为零。从23周开始,胎儿在子宫中每多待一周,存活率就会上一个台阶:第23周是15%,第24周就上升到55%,到第25周,胎儿存活率已经可以达到80%。

如果能够在子宫环境中待到第28周,胎儿就算是闯过了最危险的关口。

经过28天超过670个小时的实验,8只胎羊全部发育正常。作为对比,此前同类型设备的动物实验最高纪录仅仅是60小时,实验动物还承受了脑损伤。这次的8只小羊羔全都安然无恙,目前看来,与正常子宫孵化的没有什么两样。最容易出现早产并发症的肺和大脑都没有出现状况。

“在体外再造一个子宫”

“我们这个系统就是在体外再造一个子宫。”帕特里奇医生说。

“我们不要把这些孩子当成新生儿对待。”研究团队带头人、费城儿童医院外科医生弗雷克总结,“我们还是把它们当作尚未出生的胎儿。”因此,工作的目标不是让新生儿适应这个世界,而是为胎儿提供一个类似母体的环境。

胎儿的生存呼吸都在液体环境中进行,帕特里奇医生将子宫外的世界称为“旱地”。对“粮草装备”尚不齐全的极端早产儿来说,贸然“登岸”往往凶多吉少。一般人安之若素的环境,对新生儿来说则仿佛在枪林弹雨中穿行,稍不留神就有性命危险。

这个临时堡垒的主体是一个塑料袋,里面灌满了研究者配制的电解质溶液,用来替代羊水。这些人工羊水从一端流入,另一端流出,清除代谢废物,为胎儿提供接近无菌、温度稳定的成长环境。“生物袋”的另一个组成部分则是血液循环系统,替代脐带与胎盘,通过血液为胎儿排除二氧化碳和代谢废物,提供氧气与营养。

“对于早产儿的救治如同闯关。”北京和睦家医院儿科主任杨明曾对媒体说,“闯过了一关,或许还有惊险的下一关。” 呼吸衰竭、颅内出血、血糖不稳定、高胆红素血症、严重感染、持续肺动脉高压、喂养不耐受等,都是极端早产儿可能要经历的关口。

呼吸就是所有早产儿首先面临的关口。“早产儿第一个问题就是肺发育不好。”安贞医院妇产科副主任医师杨冬介绍,“所以他出来面临的第一个问题就是呼吸窘迫。”

杨明接触的一个极端早产儿就没有自主呼吸能力,从助产士手中接过来,孩子“口唇都是青紫的”,只能自己“顽强地倒气”。

宝宝在母亲肚子里是不呼吸的,胎儿吸入氧气,排出二氧化碳,都是通过血液循环,借由脐带和胎盘进行传输。在子宫内,胎儿的肺泡都是闭合状态,浸润在羊水中。

足月(37周后生产)顺产的孩子在第34周左右,呼吸中枢基本发育成熟,会分泌一种肺表面活性物质,分娩时产道挤压,肺泡中的水分被充分排出,肺泡就会在活性物质的刺激下迅速膨胀,空气顺利进入新生儿的双肺。胎儿发出的第一声响亮的嚎哭,就是阶段性胜利的信号。

极端早产儿的呼吸中枢没有发育成熟,肺表面活性物质也没有完全到位,往往需要借助呼吸机辅助呼吸。这是一个两难的选择,呼吸机将氧气压入肺中,维持呼吸的同时,也会对早产儿的肺部造成损伤。长时间、高浓度的氧气甚至会造成眼部血管畸形发育,导致新生儿视网膜脱落。

为了解决这种问题,“生物袋”采用的是一种“无泵”设计。胎儿在袋中通过血液排出二氧化碳,获得氧气。血液流动需要动力,“生物袋”的循环系统采用一种新型氧合器,将内部阻力降到极低,这样,即使仅仅借助新生儿微弱的心脏搏动,也能让血液保持循环。

极端早产儿会在人工羊水中发育成熟

“我们希望能够提供给极端早产儿一套不同的医疗模式。”弗雷克医生说,“我们正在和美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)联系,我认为3年内会开始人类的临床试验。”

如果临床试验顺利的话,弗雷克医生预言,未来,极端早产儿都会在人工羊水中发育成熟,而不是躺在保温箱里。

不少人想起了科幻小说里的情节,有了人工子宫,女性是不是可以省去怀胎的辛苦。弗雷克医生的回答很认真:我们志不在此。他特别强调,“生物袋”不适用于23周以前的胎儿,现有条件无法满足胎儿早期发育所需的更加精细的条件。

今年2月底,一个出生时仅有600多克的极端早产儿在北京和睦家医院顺利出院。当时,这个名叫Alex的小男孩已经在医院待了200多天,体重也从最初的600克变为5公斤。

和睦家医院儿科主任杨明还记得最开始见到Alex的样子,这个24周出生的极端早产儿“几乎是半透明的”,腹壁血管、脏器位置、肠蠕动的形状都清晰可见。因为刚出生时身体太小,Alex的尿不湿用的是一块最小尺码的无菌方纱巾,测量排尿量时,需要积攒几块才能称重。

在中国,Alex这样的孩子也被称为“有生机儿”。

安贞医院妇产科副主任医师杨冬介绍,“有生机儿”死亡率、发病率都比较高,面对这种情况,很多家庭会选择将孩子流掉。“如果将来发育不好,这样的小孩对家庭来说是一个沉重的负担。”要养育“有生机儿”,经济承受能力是每个家庭都需要考虑的事情。

2015年,福建女子林海燕生下了一对双胞胎女儿“希希”和“涵涵”。结婚4年,她和丈夫张辉终于通过试管婴儿的方法怀上了孩子。

但是,因为双胞胎出生时仅有26周,需要送到新生儿科,借助保温箱和呼吸机,才有可能健康长大。“两个我们都想救,但是我们的经济能力,让我们只能选择救一个。”无奈之下,林海燕和丈夫将体重更重一些的“希希”送进了保温箱,将“涵涵”留在自己的病房,孩子没法进食,就用滴管,每隔半小时往嘴里滴几滴奶。

出生46小时后,涵涵离开了这个世界。

“早产儿家长都要面临这样的两难处境,究竟是穷尽各种手段保住孩子的性命,还是竭尽所能减少他的痛苦?”一位重症监护室随访计划负责人说,“有一件事,每一位极端早产儿家长可能都默默想过:‘如果早知道结果依然会这么糟糕,我一开始就不会让孩子经历这么多。’”

 

在费城儿童医院工作了21年,弗雷克医生说,自己看到新生命诞生的记录都十分详实,但对于极端早产儿来说,记录的最后几页大都在重复遗憾的故事。他希望“生物袋”能够给这些急切的新生命多提供一种选择。



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